|O. Yaroshevych – Fourth-Year Student of Country Studies and International Relations Department International Relations Faculty Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University;
Y. Vozniuk – Candidate of Political Sciences, Associated Professor of the Department of Country Studies and International Relations
|The work is done at the Department of Country Studies and International Relations|
Ярошевич О., Вознюк Є В. Аспекти двосторонньої співпраці України та Ірану. Розглянуто місце Ісламської Республіки Іран у сучасних міжнародних відносинах. Висвітлено договірно-правову базу співпраці України та Ірану. Охарактеризовано двосторонні торгівельно-економічні, гуманітарні та туристичні зв’язки обох держав. Проаналізовано найперспективніші сфери подальшого співробітництва у сфері сільського господарства, науково-технічного співробітництва, металургії, ветеринарії тощо.
Ключові слова: співробітництво, двосторонні відносини, зовнішня політика, договірно-правова база, Україна, Ісламська Республіка Іран.
The place of the Islamic Republic of Iran in contemporary international relations is considered. The legal basis of cooperation between Ukraine and Iran is highlighted. Bilateral trade-economic, humanitarian and tourist relations of both countries are characterized. The most promising areas for future cooperation in agriculture, science and technology cooperation, industry, animal husbandry, etc are analyzed.
Key words: cooperation, bilateral relations, foreign policy, legal framework, Ukraine, the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Iran – second only to Saudi Arabia’s oil state, which has about 20 billion dollars income from oil exports. This helps it to retain significant forces and carry out large-scale rearmament. In the West, the dominant view that Iran provides the infrastructure for the production of nuclear weapons with the help of China.
However, Central Asian experts do not consider Iran a threat to security in the region, as increasing their own military capabilities it needs most to create a regional center of force in the Persian Gulf.
Iran sees itself in three ways: as a savior of Islamic values, a leading member of the Third World in the fight against neo-colonialism and the player in oil and gas policy in the international arena. It is able to carry out political and economic patronage region and has vital interests for ensuring stability in the region, but international isolation strongly inhibits such activity. The chances of Iran also reduced due to domination of its own economic model. The weakening of the private sector, is due to the fact that Iranian goods are inferior of Chinese quality. Iran is able to offer advanced technologies that are badly needed new independent states of the region.
Iran’s foreign policy is independent game opposed to Western countries, competing with Turkey and Pakistan and trying not to aggravate relations with Russia. It develops economic and political cooperation with the northern neighbor – Turkmenistan, significantly affect the ethnically and culturally related to it Tajikistan supports Tajik-Uzbek anti-Taliban coalition in Afghanistan .
The Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI) has recognized the independence of Ukraine in December 25, 1991. Protocol on establishment of diplomatic relations at level of embassies signed in Kiev on 22 January 1992, and from late January in Kiev responded Embassy of Iran. In October of that year, Ukraine operates Embassy in Tehran.
The legal basis of Ukrainian-Iranian bilateral relations provides the legal basis for mutually beneficial cooperation between the two countries in political, economic and humanitarian spheres.
The fundamental document of bilateral relations between Ukraine and Iran is the Declaration of Principles of friendly cooperation between Ukraine and the IRI signed by the Presidents of the two states in Tehran in April 26, 1992
Cooperation between Ukraine and Iran is a part of the current legal framework, in particular, the Trade Agreement between the Government of Ukraine and the IRI (2001), Agreement between the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran on Reciprocal Promotion and Protection of Investments (1996), Memorandum of understanding between Ukraine and the IRI for economic and industrial cooperation (1992) and the Memorandum of understanding of Fourth joint meeting of the Intergovernmental Ukrainian-Iranian commission for economic and trade co workers (2004), arrangements of Third Joint Meeting of the Committee on trade between Ukraine and the Islamic Republic of Iran (2007) .
Iran to Ukraine – is a promising economic partner in the region of the Middle East.
Iran is assisting Ukraine in establishing fruitful contacts and establishing cooperation with a number of influential regional organizations – the Organization for Economic Cooperation and the Organization of the Islamic Conference.
The focus in the relations between the two countries paid to expand the scope and volume of trade exchange, the establishment and strengthening of direct contacts between business structures of the two countries to ensure domestic producers long-term contracts, particularly in the areas of engine and aircraft engineering, manufacturing oil and gas equipment, rail cars, power equipment, equipment for the mining industry.
The main products exported from Ukraine to Iran – steel, rolled, oil, railroad cars, pipes for the oil and gas industry, iron fittings, profiles, steam turbines, industrial equipment, paper, cardboard and the like. IRI main products exported to the Ukraine – fruit, dried, copper, fur, leather, aluminum products, plastics, carpets, metals and others.
The structure of Ukrainian exports to Iran: products of steel industry (rolling, tubes, rods, bars, corners, profile) – 47 %; agricultural products (sunflower oil, corn) – 19,2 %, – 11 % fertilizer; machines and equipment for railway, mining industry, power industry equipment, aircraft parts, chemicals and other – 22,8 %. The structure of Iranian exports to Ukraine: cars; agricultural products (dates, pistachios, figs, grapes, fresh or dried); minerals, chemical products; carpets; furniture; leather products and the like.
Promising directions of Ukrainian-Iranian cooperation in the humanitarian field are: establishing productive relationships in higher, secondary and vocational education; strengthening contacts between universities and other higher educational institutions of Ukraine and Iran exchange of teachers, students and professionals; expansion of relations between sports organizations and institutions of physical education between the two countries; enhance cooperation between Ukrainian and Iranian firms that operate in international tourism business; strengthening cooperation between Ukrainian and Iranian filmmakers; establishing direct contacts and mutual exchange between creative and musical groups .
Activation of travel business between the two countries contributed to the Agreement between the Government of Ukraine and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran on cooperation in tourism. It was signed at the Third joint meeting of the Intergovernmental Ukrainian-Iranian Commission on Economic and Trade Cooperation in May 2002 in Tehran.
Ukraine and Iran is deepening their bilateral relations in the field of livestock, poultry farming, veterinary medicine. The parties plan to expand trade in grain and other food products. Particular attention was paid to scientific and technical cooperation and the introduction of new technologies in the agricultural sector.
According to APK-Inform figures, in 2016/17 MY Ukraine increased export volumes of corn towards countries of the Middle East and Asia. Such trend developed due to the increased competition rates on the global market in terms of the record high production volumes and carry-over stocks.
At the same time, in the current season Iran became a leader of Ukrainian corn purchases. In October-February of 2016/17 MY, the country imported nearly 1.7 mln tonnes of corn from Ukraine, or 17 % of the general supplies in the reporting period. At the same time, during the whole last season Ukraine exported 0.67 mln tonnes of corn to Iran, and the country kept the 8th position only in the rating of major importers of the Ukrainian grain, according to APK-Inform.
It should be noted that enlargement in domestic consumption of the grain contributed to significant growing of corn import volumes to Iran. According to USDA experts, the domestic consumption increased by 26 % compared with 2015/16 MY figures, and totaled 11,1 mln tones .
A promising area of cooperation is considered the development of relations between Ukraine and Iran sports organizations. In January 2012 the negotiations between the leaders of Ukraine and Iran boxing federation, the results of which the parties have agreed on a contract with Ukrainian boxing experts who will train Iranian athletes. Traditionally friendly matches were female footsal teams. In August 2012, Iranian athletes come to Kyiv at the invitation of the Football Federation of Ukraine
Therefore, the current legal framework of the Ukrainian-Iranian cultural and humanitarian relations consists of 10 documents. Bilateral trade and economic relations between Ukraine and Iran are carried out in many sectors of industry – this aircraft, machinery, metallurgy and transport sector. Ukraine and Iran is deepening their bilateral relations in the field of livestock, poultry farming, veterinary medicine. The parties plan to expand trade in grain and other food products. Particular attention was paid to scientific and technical cooperation and the introduction of new technologies in the agricultural sector. Also promising area of cooperation is considered the development of relations between Ukraine and Iran sports organizations.
Sources and literature
- Формування українсько-іранських відносин [Electronic sourse]. – Mode of access : http://pidruchniki.com/1638052055652/politologiya/formuvannya_ukrayinsko-iranskih_vidnosin
- In the first half of 2016/17 MY, Iran became the leader of Ukrainian corn purchases [Electronic sourse]. – Mode of access : http://theiranproject.com/blog/tag/iran-ukraine-relations/
- The Iran Nuclear Deal: implications for Ukraine Iran Nuclear Deal [Electronic sourse]. – Mode of access : http://icps.com.ua/en/studies-icps/foreign-policy/the-iran-nuclear-deal-implications-for-ukraine/or Ukraine
- The World Factbook [Electronic sourse]. – Mode of access : https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2116.html.